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    Kveta Kopecká Registered Nurse

    Oh the wrinkles… Prečo ich máme a vieme sa ich vôbec zbaviť?

    Aging is a natural process that is unfortunately most visible on our skin. Ageing skin gradually weakens and falls, causing wrinkles, lines and furrows to form. The severity of these changes depends on genetic disposition, skin phototype and environmental factors.

    In dermatology and aesthetic medicine, several degrees of “wrinkled” skin are distinguished:

    Moderate degree – there are only a few wrinkles on the skin, which hardly need any make-up coverage at all.
    Medium – the skin is pale to grey, contains premature lines and wrinkles, the correction of which requires a little make-up.
    Advanced stage – the skin already has permanent wrinkles, the skin colour is grey with enlarged coils, pores and sun spots, the skin requires intensive make-up coverage.
    Severe degree – means already the existence of deep wrinkles and furrows, a number of dilated blood vessels and pigmentations that can not be completely covered with make-up.

    How are wrinkles formed?
    The following factors are involved in the formation of wrinkles:

    • biological ageing
    • direct sunlight
    • movements of mimic muscles
    • Gravity
    • Injuries
    • surgical procedures
    • acne
    • other skin diseases with a tendency to scar (e.g. lupus)
    • smoking

    Fine lines
    Fine lines and wrinkles occur due to irregular thickening of the dermis and due to a decrease in the amount of water in the epidermis. Skin dehydration is mainly caused by direct exposure to sunlight, various environmental toxins and smoking.

    Deeper lines or grooves are classified as dynamic or static. Dynamic lines appear during movement, i.e. at the time of facial muscle activity. Dynamic lines gradually turn into static lines and become visible on the skin even when the facial muscles are not moving. This is how, for example, the fan lines around the eyes are formed, which are caused by smiling and the activity of the eye muscles. Also, wrinkles on the forehead are the result of contraction of the forehead muscle and lifting of the eyebrows. The lines of anger between the eyebrows are again caused when we frown or are often thoughtful. Dynamic wrinkles often form around the lips as well.

    As the skin ages, it loses its elasticity and elasticity and gradually decreases due to gravity. The skin is weakened by the reduction of fat cells in the subcutaneous tissue, loss of collagen and elastin fibres in the dermis with age.

    The result:

    • Eyebrow ptosis (the forehead moves lower so that the eyebrows drop over the eyelids).
    • Eyelid ptosis (the upper eyelid droops over the eye, in some cases to the point of limiting vision).
    • Bagginess of the upper and lower eyelid.
    • Drooping lower eyelids, revealing reddened mucous membrane under the eye.
    • The lobes around the jaw.
    • Under the chin.
    • Stretched earlobes.
    • The tip of the nose falls off.
    • Upper lip sag.

    What wrinkle treatments are available?

    Today, modern medicine can ensure youthful-looking skin for much longer than age dictates. There are a number of creams, methods, treatments and surgical procedures that are really effective, but in many cases they need to be combined, repeated or used regularly. The cheapest and most effective way to protect your skin from premature ageing is to protect it from direct sunlight and avoid smoking, which includes passive smoking, i.e. being in a smoky area.

    Another must is regular hydration. High-quality cosmetic products with a moisturising effect will improve the skin’s ability to retain water. It is necessary to choose those that do not cause allergies, do not irritate the skin, do not burn or cause acne after application.

    Resurfacing is another effective tool that involves various techniques in which the upper layer of the epidermis is abraded using chemical or mechanical means. Its gradual exfoliation evens out pigmentation and improves skin texture. Helps remove fine lines and alleviate static furrows. These include superficial and medium depth chemical peels, dermabrasion and microdermabrasion, Neodymium : YAG laser, CO2 laser resurfacing, intense pulsed light and also hyaluronic acid implantation. “The clients who come to us are most concerned about wrinkles around the mouth, eyes and forehead. For dynamic lines, the application of botulinum toxin is the ideal solution. The toxin will cause paralysis of the muscles responsible for frown lines, crow’s feet around the eyes, and forehead wrinkles. We can also change the shape of the eyebrows and remove wrinkles around the lips,” says MUDr. Alexandra Novotná, owner of Clinic Esthetic.

    Plastic surgery helps in cases where a greater volume of facial tissue needs to be reshaped and the structure of flabby muscles needs to be altered. A facelift, i.e. a total facelift or mid-face lift, removes excess skin and tightens the underlying muscles of the lower two-thirds of the face (face and neck). It can also flatten the skin on the forehead, lift the eyebrows, correct sagging eyelids, lift the droopy tip of the nose, remove excess skin and fat pads from the eyelids, and improve the appearance of a sagging neck.

    AUTHOR: MUDr. Alexandra Novotná, dermatologist, owner of Esthetic Clinic